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Comments on Cisco, Mozilla, and H.264

Please note: This is not a statement on behalf of Xiph.Org or Mozilla. I speak here for myself, my team, and other developers who share my views on an open web.

If you haven't seen today's announcements from Cisco and Mozilla regarding H.264, you'll want to read them before continuing.

Let's state the obvious with respect to VP8 vs H.264: We lost, and we're admitting defeat. Cisco is providing a path for orderly retreat that leaves supporters of an open web in a strong enough position to face the next battle, so we're taking it.

By endorsing Cisco's plan, there's no getting around the fact that we've caved on our principles. That said, principles can't replace being in a practical position to make a difference in the future. With Cisco making H.264 available at no cost, holding out against H.264 in WebRTC makes even less sense than holding out after Google shipped H.264 in the video tag. At least under these terms, H.264 will be available at no cost to Mozilla and to any other piece of software that uses the downloadable plugin.

Cisco's license hack is obvious enough if you have the money: There's a yearly cap on total payments for any given licensed H.264 product. This year the cap is $6.5M. Any company that pays the cap each year can distribute as many copies as they want. There are still terms and restrictions on how the distribution gets done, but Cisco will be handling that (and only Cisco will be allowed to build and distribute these copies without a separate license).

Once you or your applications download the prebuilt codec blob from Cisco, you're allowed to use that specific blob for anything you want so long as you don't modify it or give it to anyone else. H.264 codecs for everyone! Cisco has committed to these blobs being available for just about every platform and architecture you can think of. "IBM S/360? Yes, please!"

This arrangement has obvious short-term benefits. Open source projects get licensed (if partial and restricted) access to H.264, and users don't feel like they're being held hostage in the ongoing battle between the open web and closed codecs. Firefox and other projects can install H.264 support (via Cisco), which is a big deal.

That said, today's arrangement is at best a stopgap, and it doesn't change much on the ground. How many people don't already have H.264 codecs on their machines, legit or otherwise? Enthusiasts and professionals alike have long paid little attention to licensing. Even most businesses today don't know and don't care if the codecs they use are properly licensed[1]. The entire codec market has been operating under a kind of 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell' policy for the past 15 years and I doubt the MPEG LA minds. It's helped H.264 become ubiquitous, and the LA can still enforce the brass tacks of the license when it's to their competitive advantage (or rather, anti-competitive advantage; they're a legally protected monopoly after all).

The mere presence of a negotiated license divides the Web into camps of differing privilege. Today's agreement is actually a good example; x264 (and every other open source implementation of an encumbered codec) are cut out. They're not included in this agreement, and there's no way they could be. As it is, giving away just this single, officially-blessed H.264 blob is going to cost Cisco $65M over the next decade[2]. Is it any wonder video is struggling to become a first-class feature of the Web? Licensing caused this problem, and more licensing is not a solution.

The giveaway also solves nothing long-term. H.264 is already considered 'on the way out' by MPEG, and today's announcement doesn't address any licensing issues surrounding the next generation of video codecs. We've merely kicked the can down the road and set a dangerous precedent for next time around. And there will be a next time around.

So, we're focusing on being ready.

Fully free and open codecs are in a better position today than before Google opened VP8 in 2010. Last year we completed standardization of Opus, our popular state-of-the-art audio codec (which also happens to be the best audio codec in the world at the moment). Now, Xiph.Org and Mozilla are building Daala, a next-generation solution for video.

Like Opus, Daala is a novel approach to codec design. It aims not to be competitive, but to win outright. Also like Opus, it will carry no royalties and no usage restrictions; anyone will be permitted to use the Daala codec for anything without securing a license, just like the Web itself and every other core technology on the Internet.

That's a real solution that can make everyone happy.

I can't resist a little codec fantasy football.

MPEG HEVC licensing isn't set yet. It will be interesting to watch the negotiations if Cisco's H.264 giveaway plan is wildly successful. In the future, could nearly every legal copy of HEVC come as a binary blob from one Internet source under one cap? I doubt that possibility is something the MPEG LA has considered, and they may consider it now that someone is actually trying to pull it off with H.264. Perhaps in five years, even cameras and televisions will download a software codec to avoid paying monopoly rents. Sillier things have happened given sufficient profit motive.

Or maybe they'll build in a free, legally uncomplicated copy of Daala instead. Dare to dream.

—Monty Montgomery <monty@xiph.org> and others
October 30, 2013



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Free (that's with a capital F) codecs update: Opus and Daala

Xiph and Mozilla's Greg Maxwell (or as Dave has been teasing, 'Professor Max') gave a good thorough presentation on Opus and progress being made on Daala at the 2013 GStreamer conference in Edinburgh on Wednesday. Unlike many of our presentations, we were more careful to get complete video for this one.

If you've been a fan of the Daala demo updates, his talk touches on some of the topics of upcoming demos, specifically PVQ, the range coder, and motion compensation. Obviously, I'll be going into more detail on those in the actual demo pages.

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Introduction to Daala part 4: Chroma from Luma

Another new demo, another new technique specific to Daala: frequency domain prediction of the chroma planes from the luma plane!

Predicting the chroma planes from the luma plane isn't a brand-new idea. Still, we're both the only codec to actually be deploying it, and we're doing it entirely in the frequency domain (which is novel).

Read on!

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xiphmont

A fond farewell to Red Hat, an exciting hello to Mozilla

Just a quick note, as people will doubtless ask about it...

I'm leaving Red Hat and joining Mozilla as of next week. This has been in the works for most of the summer.

This is not a reflection on Red Hat, but rather jumping at an opportunity offered by Mozilla. I'll be able to better coordinate and work more closely with the other Xiph Daala developers, most of whom are already at Mozilla, as Xiph and Mozilla continue to ramp up directed development of the codec. I'm choosing between an awesome job, and a potentially even more awesome job. Such problems we all wish to have.

To my Red Hat co-workers: It's been a pleasure and honor to work with you. I suppose I still work with you in the big picture, but starting Monday I'll be on someone else's req.

(also, not _physically_ moving anywhere, staying put in Somerville)

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Introducing Daala, part 3: Time/Frequency Resolution Switching

I've just posted part 3 in my demo series introducing the Daala video codec. This one is kind of a long one, mainly because I think it's one of the only really detailed presentations of a technique Jean-Marc Valin of Xiph invented and first introduced in the Opus audio codec: 'TF' aka Time/Frequency resolution switching.

Even better... while I was documenting TF for posterity, I spotted a possible improvement. So, I've tossed in documentation of a brand new technique as well!

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Introducing Daala part 2: Frequency Domain Intra Prediction

Now up, part two of the introduction I'm writing for Xiph's upcoming video codec Daala. The fact that we're using lapped transforms means we've had to apply a little cleverness to intra prediction, and so we've opted to do it in the frequency domain...

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A new demo page for the Opus 1.1 beta release

I've made another demo page, this one in celebration of the Opus 1.1 beta release today...

"Opus marches onward toward its manifest destiny with today's beta of the upcoming 1.1 release. This will be the first major update to libopus since standardization as RFC 6716 in 2012, and includes improvements to performance, encoding quality, and the library APIs. Here's a few of the upgrades that Opus users and implementors will care about the most."

Cheers!

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Next-Next Generation Video: Introducing Daala

Xiph.Org has been working on Daala, a new video codec for some time now, though Opus work had overshadowed it until just recently. With Opus finalized and much of the mop-up work well in hand, Daala development has taken center stage.

I've started work on 'demo' pages for Daala, just like I've done demos of other Xiph development projects. Daala aims to be rather different from other video codecs (and it's the first from-scratch design attempt in a while), so the first few demo pages are going to be mostly concerned with what's new and different in Daala.

I've finished the first 'demo' page (about Daala's lapped transforms), so if you're interested in video coding technology, go have a look!

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xiphmont

Wait, dude, what?

Oh. Oh my. After a decade of the MPEG LA saying they were coming to destroy the FOSS codec movement, with none other than the late Steve Jobs himself chiming in, today the Licensing Authority announced what we already knew.

They got nothing. There will be no Theora patent pool. There will be no VP8 patent pool. There will be no VPnext patent pool.

We knew that of course, we always did. It's just that I never, in a million years, expected them to put it in writing and walk away. The wording suggests Google paid some money to grease this along, and the agreement wording is interesting [and instructive] but make no mistake: Google won. Full stop.

This is not an unconditional win for FOSS, of course, the LA narrowed the scope of the agreement as much as they could in return for agreeing to stop being a pissy, anti-competetive brat. But this is still huge. We can work with this.

For at least the immediate future, I shall have to think some uncharacteristically nice things about the MPEG LA.*

And now... Discuss!

*Apologies to Rep. Barney Frank


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It's Out! It's Finally Out!

We did it. We finally finished Xiph's second big video: Episode 2: Digital Show & Tell

"The second video from Xiph.Org explores multiple facets of digital audio signals and how they really behave in the real world. Sampling, quantization, dither, band-limiting, and vintage bench equipment all in one video!" Go see it!

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